History 435.01: Special Topics      Law and Society in the Ancient World
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
Fall 2007     Dr. Linda Jones Hall      MWF 2:40-4:30 Kent Hall 312
Office: 204 Kent  Hall         Phone:  240-895-4434 or ext. 4434                 
Office hours: 9:20-10:30 on Mon. and Wed., other times by appointment
Email:  ljhall@smcm.edu  webpage: http://www.smcm.edu/users/ljhall/ljhall.html

Course description
This course will analyze and compare the concepts of justice and equity that underlay  the legal systems of ancient Mesopotamia, Greece, and Rome. The  intersections of responsibility and right conduct between superior and inferior or between equals will be of particular interest. The relations between master and slave, between husband and wife, and between buyer and seller offered the potential for conflict among interested parties. The ancient legal arrangements, as set forth in both the ancient legal texts and recorded trials (particularly murder cases), reveal shifting paradigms of right and wrong behavior and shed light on current interpretations of justice and equity.

Required Texts
ANE = Current issues in the history of the Ancient Near East, ed. M.W. Chavalas (Publications of the Association of Ancient Historians, 8. Claremont, CA: Regina Books, 2007), ISBN1-930053-46-0; 978-930053-46-5. paperback.
ROTH = Martha Roth, ed. Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Writings from the Ancient World series, no. 6. 2nd ed. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997.  ISBN 0788503782.
MAC = Douglas M. MacDowell. The Law in Classical Athens. Aspects of Greek and Roman Life series. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978. Reprint ed., 1986.  ISBN 080149365X
ARN = Ilias Arnaoutoglou.  Ancient Greek Laws: A Sourcebook. London and New York: Routledge, 1998. ISBN 0415149851.
FREEMAN = Kathleen Freeman. The Murder of Herodes: and Other Trials from Athenian Law Courts. 1963, W.W. Norton. Reprint ed., Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1994. ISBN 0872203069.
CROOK = J. A. Crook.  Law and Life of Rome. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press,1967. Reprint ed., 1984. ISBN 0801492734.
HOUSEHOLD = Jane F. Gardner and T. Wiedemann. The Roman Household: A Sourcebook. Routledge, 1991.  ISBN 0-415-04422-7.
CICERO = Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Murder trials, translated with an introduction by Michael Grant.  Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England ; Baltimore, Md.: Penguin, c1975, ISBN 9780140442885
TURABIAN = TURABIAN = Kate Turabian. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 7th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.  ISBN 0-226-82337-9. Any edition will benefit you. 
ROUX = Georges Roux. Ancient Iraq. 3rd ed. New York: Penguin, 1992. ISBN 0-14-012523-x

Regular attendance is expected. Read the assignments in advance in order to participate fully in class discussion. As we will discuss the primary sources in detail, bring those texts to class as indicated on the syllabus. Organize your time in such a way that you can meet the deadlines for your assignments.

See the Oxford Classical Dictionary (1 vol., 3rd ed.) [OCD] and the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (3 vols.) [ODB] for articles that indicate current trends in historiography and refer you to important bibliography.These reference works are available in the Reference section of the SMCM library. At the front of these volumes is a key list of abbreviations of journals and other works that you will need for preparing the annotated bibliography and research paper.

Journals at SMCM (on the second floor of the library near the stairs at the rear of that floor) include Archaeology, Arethusa, Classical Journal, Classical Quarterly, Classical Review, Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies, and others. Current issues are on the display racks. Back issues are bound and are on the shelf by the call number which you can find either from the current issue or from the catalog.
Also the library “subscribes” to online journals and search engines, many of which print ariticles: PROJECT MUSE http://muse.jhu.edu/
JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/
LIBRARY DATABASES LINK  http://www.smcm.edu/library/databases.cfm
TOCS-IN is an excellent search tool for recent bibliography of journal articles (some will print) http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/amphoras/tocfind
ILL request forms for getting books and articles from SMCM Interlibrary Loan http://www.smcm.edu/library/illpolic.htm

BIBILOGRAPHY (10 items required)  & OUTLINE                    = 100 points
PRESENTATION OF PAPER TOPIC                                                                    = 60 points
FIRST TEST          = 150 points
FINAL EXAM              = 150 points
FINAL PAPER                                                                                                            = 300 points


Ultimately, the student’s grade is based on the professor’s assessment of the student’s work. 
94-100 = A, 93-90 = A-, 87-89 = B+, 84-86 = B, 80-83 = B-, 77-79 = C+, 74-76 = C,
70-73 = C-, 67-69 = D+, 64-66 = D, 63-60 = D-, below 60 = F

Academic dishonesty is a very serious offense; see the SMCM catalog, the student handbook, or http://www.smcm.edu/academics/academserv/advisingmanual/appendix%20c.htm
Penalties can include, but are not limited to, a zero on the work in question, an F in the course, and referral to the Office of the Provost. ALL sources (books, articles, internet) must be cited properly. 


Students will make weekly presentations on assigned topics. These topics will include, but not be restricted to, discussions of assigned readings, both primary sources and secondary analyses. Students will also present reports on relevant journal articles and book chapters, as assigned. A schedule will be established for these presentations.

Students will turn in a bibliography of ten items. Each item should consist of the correct bibliographical citation for the book or journal article (which could be from a print or electronic format) and must go beyond the assigned readings. This bibliography is for the final paper. Students will also turn in a five point outline with an introductory thesis statement that explains the main argument of the final paper.

Students will make a fifteen-minute presentation to the class of the main points of their paper topic. This presentation will include giving each member of  the class a handout which should list the proposed title, the student’s name, an outline of five points (either phrase or sentence outline), and five bibliographical entries the student plans to use in his/her final paper. The fifteen minute presentation includes time for class interaction and questions.

There will be a mid-term test and a final exam. These will be designed to assess the student’s comprehension of assigned readings from both the ancient and modern authors. Since the paper topics will be individualized, these tests will focus in a more general way on the student’s understanding of issues and arguments of the common readings for the course.

This paper should be 15 pages in length, including bibliography and notes. YOU MUST USE 5 PRIMARY SOURCE QUOTATIONS!!!. As this is also a research paper, you should also cite such secondary sources as books and journal articles. Refer to Turabian for proper format for all aspects of writing.


TOCS-IN, a search tool for recent bibliography of journal articles http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/amphoras/tocfind

Journal abbreviations from AJA http://www.ajaonline.org/index.php?ptype=page&pid=8

Online guide to Turabian style for citations

DIOTIMA http://www.uky.edu/ArtsSciences/Classics/gender.html

Paul Hassall’s website   http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/byzantium
Tony Honore’s website http://users.ox.ac.uk/~alls0079/
Roman Law Library http://web.upmf-grenoble.fr/Haiti/Cours/Ak/index.htm

A general site on law in the ancient world.

Mesopotamian Law http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/2550mesolaws.html

Near Eastern Laws http://www.jhu.edu/neareast/rwcoursematerials.pdf


Roman Law http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/volterra/index.htm#top

Roman Law against Jews

Roman law page in Scotland http://iuscivile.com/

Latin text of the Theodosian Code, search by using the edit function and key Latin word.

Latin text of Justinian's Code, search by using the edit function and key Latin word.

Schedule for HIST 435.001 Law and Society in the Ancient World

Fall 2007,  Prof. Linda Jones Hall


Dates are OK, put in ane and cicero

Week 1  Law and society in the Ancient Near East
Mon. Aug 27  Introduction  ROTH 1-10

Wed. Aug 29  Sumerian laws ROTH 13-56; ANE I (5-34)

Week 2  Mon. Sep 3  LABOR DAY NO CLASS

Wed. Sep 5  Babylonian laws ROTH 57-152; ANE I (34-46)

Week 3 Mon Sep 10  Assyrian laws ROTH 153-212,; ANE II (53-96)

Wed Sep 12  Hittite laws ROTH 213-240; ANE III ( 97-111)

Week 4 Law and society in ancient Greece
Mon. Sep 17 Primitive Greek law MAC 8-40, ARN 35-36, 64-66, 115-128, FREEMAN I (9-13)

Wed. Sep 19 Codes and cases MAC 41-83, ARN 26-35, 61-64, 74-95,
FREEMAN II (14-30); XV (173-180); IX (107-113)

Week 5 Mon Sep 24 The family and marriage MAC 84-108, ARN 16-25, 101-104,
FREEMAN XVII (191-228); XI  (131-139); XIII (147-162)

Wed Sep 26 Death, assault and abuse MAC 109-132, ARN 66-73,
FREEMANIV (43-53); VIII (97-106); VII (86-96)

Week 6 Mon Oct 1 Property, community life  MAC 133-174, ARN 1-15, 104-111, FREEMAN XIV (163-172), X (114-130), XII (140-146);  Treason, religion MAC 175-202, ARN 129-145, FREEMAN XVI (181-190)

Wed Oct 3 L egal proceedings- arbitration and barring legal proceedings MAC 203-219, ARN 96-101, FREEMAN VI (63-85);
Trial, punishment MAC 235-259, FREEMAN III (31-42), XIX (234-236);
Foreigners, merchants, and the legal calendar MAC 220-234, ARN 37-66

Wed Oct 10 FIRST TEST over laws of Ancient Near East and Greece

Week 8 Law and society in the Roman world
Mon. Oct 15  Personal status CROOK 7-67, HOUSEHOLD I, 1-29

Wed Oct  17 How the law worked CROOK 68- 97, HOUSEHOLD II-III, 30-67

Week 9 Mon. Oct 22 Family and succession CROOK 98-138, HOUSEHOLD IV-V, 68-116

Wed Oct 24  Property CROOK 139-178, HOUSEHOLD VI, 117-143

Week 10 Mon Oct 29 Labor, free and unfree CROOK 179-205, HOUSEHOLD VII, 144-165

Wed Oct 31 Patronage and friendship, HOUSEHOLD VIII, 166-183

Merchants and commerce CROOK 206-249

Wed Nov 7 The citizen and the state CROOK 250- 286

Week 12 Mon Nov 12 Cicero Cases  presentations by groups
Case I (Sextus Roscius) 25-110 in three parts; Case III (Gaius Rabirius) 257-290

Wed Nov 14 Cicero Case II (Aulus Cluentius Habitus) 113-253 in three parts; discussion of legal and rhetorical tactics

Week 13 Mon. Nov 19 Library research day


Week 14 Mon Nov 26 FINAL PAPER IS DUE
Class presentations begin

Wed Nov 28 Class presentations

Week 15 Mon Dec 3 Class presentations

Wed Dec 5 Class presentations; review for exam

Exam for this class Wednesday Dec 12, 2:00-4:15 pm  in regular classroom
Covers the material on Roman law

Additional bibliography for Law and Society in the Ancient World

Laiou, A., ed. (1993). Consent and Coercion to Sex in Ancient and Medieval Societies. Washington: 1993.  
Lefkowitz, Mary R., and Maureen B. Fant, eds. (1992).  Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Source Book in Translation. Baltinmore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2nd ed., 1992.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. (1995). Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity Reprint ed. with new introduction.  New York: Schocken Books, 1995.

Ancient Near East
Biale, Rachel. Women and Jewish Law: An Exploration of Women's Issues in Halakhic Sources. New York: Schocken Books, 1984.

Bottero, Jean, Zainab Bahrani, Marc Van de Mieroop.  Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning, and the Gods.  University of Chicago Press. 1992. Reprint ed. 1995. Pbk. ISBN 0226067270.
Gagos, Traianos, and Peter van Minnen. (1994).  Settling a Dispute: Toward a Legal Anthropology of Late Antique Egypt.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.
Halpen, Baruch, ed. (1993). Law, Politics, and Society in the Ancient Mediterranean World. 1993
Roth, Martha, ed. (1997). Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Writings from the Ancient World series, no. 6. 2nd ed. Scholars Press. 1997.  Pbk. ISBN 0788503782.
Roux, Georges.  Ancient Iraq. 2nd ed. Reprint ed. Penguin Books. Pbk. ISBN 0140208283
Russ VerSteeg. Early Mesopotamian Law. (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.) Paper 248pp ISBN 0-89089-977-0.
Greek Law
Lysias, Selected Speeches.Cambridge Greek and Latin series. Edited by Christopher Carey. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Arnaoutoglou, Ilias. (1998).  Ancient Greek Laws: A Sourcebook. Routledge, 1998.
Boegehold, A.L., and A.C. Scafuro, eds. (1994). Athenian Identity and Civic Ideology. Princeton: 1994.

Burkert, W. (1985). Greek religion, Archaic and Classical. Oxford: 1985.

Carey, C. “Rape and adultery in Athenian Law.” Classical Quarterly 45 (1995): 407-417.

Carey, Christopher. (1996). Trials from Classical Athens. London: Routledge. 1996. Pbk. ISBN 0415107601Schaps, David M. (1979). Economic Rights of Women in Ancient Greece. Edinburgh: 1979.

Cohen,  D. (1991).  Law, Sexuality, and Society. Cambridge: 1991.

Cohen,  D. (1995).  Law, Violence, and Community in Classical Athens. Cambridge: 1995.

Foxhall, L., and A.D.E. Lewis, eds. (1996). Greek law in its Political Setting:Justifications, not Justice. Oxford: 1996.

Gagarin, M. (1985). “The Function of Witnesses at Gortyn.”  Symposion 1985: 29-54

Gagarin, M. (1986). Early Greek Law.  

Harrison, A.R.W. (1968-1971). The Law of Athens.

MacDowell, Douglas M.  (1978).  The Law in  Classical Athens.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978.

MacDowell, Douglas M.  (1986).  Spartan Law. Edinburgh: 1986.

Millett, P.C. (1991). Lending and Borrowing in Classical Athens. Cambridge. 1991.
Morris, I. (1990). “ The Gortyn Code and Greek Kinship.” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 31 (1990): 233-254.
Parke, H.W. (1977).  The Festivals of the Athenians.London: 1977.
Sealey, R. (1990). Women and Law in Classical Greece. Princeton: 1990.

Todd, S. C. (1993). The Shape of Athenian Law. Oxford: 1993.

Roman Law

Cicero, Murder Trials. Translated with an Introduction by Michael Grant (London: Penguin, 1975). Paperback ISBN 014044288X.

Apuleius, The Golden Ass.  Translated with an  Introduction and Notes by P. G. Walsh. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).  Paperback ISBN 0192824929.

Ammianus Marcellinus, The Later Roman Empire (A.D. 354-378). Edited and translated by Walter Hamilton. Introduced by Andrew Wallace-Hadrill.  (New York: Penguin, 1986). Paperback ISBN 0140444068.

Frier, Bruce W., and Thomas A.J. McGinn, A Casebook on Roman Family Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0 19 516186-6.
Pharr, Clyde.  The Theodosian Code and Novels and the Sirmondian Constitutions: A Translation with Commentary, Glossary, and Bibliography.  In collaboration with Theresa Sherrer David­son and Mary Brown Pharr.  With an introduction by C. Dickerman Brown. Princeton University Press, 1952; reprint, New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. ISBN 0837124948.

Riccobono, Salvator, J. Baviera, C. Ferrini, J. Furlani, and V. Arangio-Ruiz. (1972).  Fontes Iuris Romani AnteJustiniani [Foundations of Roman Law before Justinian].  2nd ed. increased and emended.  Vols. I and II, Florence: S.A.G. Barbera, 1968. Vol. III, 1972.
Sandars, Thomas Collett. The Institutes of Justinian with English Introduction, Translation and Notes. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1922; reprint, Westport, Connecti­cut: Greenwood Press, 1970.

Sohm, Rudolph.  The Institutes: A Textbook of the History and  System of Roman Private Law.  Translated by James Crawford Ledlie.  With an introduction by Erwin Grueber 3rd edition.  London: Clarendon Press, 1940; reprint, New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1970.

Zulueta, Francis de. The Institutes of Gaius. Part I; Text with  critical notes and translation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946; 4th printing, with corrections, 1969. Part II; Commentary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953; 2nd printing, with corrections, 1967.


Alexander, Michael C. (1990).  Trials in the Late Roman Republic, 149 BC to 50 BC. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.

Arjava, Antti. (1996).  Women and Law in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.  paperback 1998.

Bauman, R.A. (1996).  Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome.  London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0 415 11375 X.

Bradley, Keith R. (1991). Discovering the Roman Family. Studies in Roman Social History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Brand, C.E. (1968).  Roman Military Law. Austin: University of Texas, 1968.

Brunt, P.A. (1980). “Evidence Given Under Torture in the Principate.” Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung Rechtsgeschichte 97 (1980) 256-265.

Champlin, E. (1991). Final Judgments: Duty and Emotion in Roman Wills, 200 BC-AD 250.  Berkeley: 1991.

Clark, Gillian. (1994) Women in Late Antiquity: Pagan and Christian Life-Styles.  Oxford University Press, reprint ed., 1994.

Coleman, K.M. (1990). “Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments,”  Journal of Roman Studies 80 (1990) 44-73.

Crook, John.  (1967).   Law and Life of Rome. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967. Reprint ed. 1984. Pbk. ISBN 0801492734.

Crook, John (1995). Legal Advocacy in the Roman World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Dixon, Suzanne. (1992). The Roman Family. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Dixon, Suzanne. (1988). The Roman Mother. London: 1988.

Foucault, Michel. (1975).  Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan. English ed. 1977, French ed. 1975.

Frier, Bruce (1989).  A Casebook on the Roman Law of Delict. Scholars Press, 1989.
Gardner, Jane (1993). Being a Roman Citizen. London: Routledge, 1993.

Garnsey, Peter (1968). “Why Penalties Became Harsher: The Roman Case, Late Republic to Fourth Century Empire,” Natural Law Forum/American Journal of Jurisprudence 13, 141-62.

Garnsey, Peter (1970). Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire.

Greenidge, A.H.J. (1901). The Legal Procedure of Cicero's Time. London: Clarendon Press, 1901.; reprint, New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1971.

Grubbs, Judith Evans. (1995) Law and Family in Late Antiquity: The Emperor Constantine’s Marriage Legislation. London: Oxford University Press.

Gruen, Erich. (1968).  Roman Politics and the Criminal Courts. 149-78 B.C.  Cambridge, Mass.:1968.

Gustafson, Mark. (1997).  “Inscripta in fronte: Penal Tattooing in Late Antiquity.” Classical Antiquity 16 (1997) 79-105.

Hallett, Judith P. (1984).  Fathers and Daughters in Roman Society: Women and the Elite Family.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Halpen, Baruch, ed. (1993). Law, Politics, and Society in the Ancient Mediterranean World (1993)

Hengel, Martin (1977). Crucifixion in the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross.  Translated by  John Bowden. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1977.

Hinard, Francois (1984). “La Male Mort. Executions et statut du corps au moment de la premiere proscription,” in Du chetiment dans la cite: supplices corporels et peine de mort dans le monde antique. Collection de l'ecole francaise de Rome 79 (1984) 295-311.

Hopkins, Keith. “Murderous Games,” in Death and Renewal.

Jolowicz, H.F., and Barry Nicholas. (1972).  Historical Introduction to the Study of Roman Law. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni­versity Press, 1972.

Jones, C.P. (1987). “Stigma: Tattooing and Branding in Graeco-Roman Antiquity,” Journal of Roman Studies 77 (1987) 139-55.

Kunkel, Wolfgang. (1972). An Introduction to Roman Legal and Constituional History, 2nd ed. 1972.

Laiou, Angeliki E., and Diter Simon, eds. (1994). Law and Society in Byzantium. 1994.

MacMullen, Ramsay. (1990). Changes in the Roman Empire: Essays in the Ordinary. (Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1990). Paperback.

MacMullen, Ramsay (1986). “Judicial Savagery in the Roman Empire,” Chiron 16 (1986) 147-166.

McGinn, Thomas A. (1998). Prostituion, Sexuality, and the Law in Ancient Rome. 1998.

Millar, Fergus (1984). “Condemnation to Hard Labour in the Roman Empire, from the Julio-Claudians to Constantine,” Papers of the British School at Rome 52 (1984) 124-147.

Nicholas, Barry.  (1987). An Introduction to Roman Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962; reprinted  with corrections, 1972; reprinted 1987.  Paperback ISBN 019876063.

Nippel, Wilfried (1995). Public Order in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.

Rawson, Beryl, ed. (1991). Marriage, Divorce and Children in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Saller,  R. “Corporal Punishment, Authority and Obedience in the Roman Household”: 144-65. 

Saller, R.P.  “Men's Age at Marriage and Its Consequences in the Roman Family.” Classical Philology (1987): 21-34.
Saller, R.P. (1984a) “Familia, domus and the Roman Conception of the Fami­ly.” Phoenix (1984): 336-55.

Saller, R.P. (1984b) “Roman Dowry and the Devolution of Property in the Principate.” Classical Quarterly 34 (1984): 195-205.

Robinson, O.F. (1995). Criminal Law of Ancient Rome. London: Duckworth, 1995.
Robinson, Olivia. (1997) The Sources of Roman Law. London: Routledge, 1997.
Sherwin-White, A. N. (1963). Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963.

Tellegen-Couperus, Olga.  (1993). A Short History of Roman Law. London: Routledge, 1993. Paperback ISBN 0415072514.

Treggiari, Susan. (1991). Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

Trombley, F. R. (1993).  Hellenic Religion and Christianization c. 370-529. 2 vols. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993.

Watson, Alan. (1967).  The Law of Persons in the Later Roman Republic.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.

Watson, Alan. (1971).  Roman Private Law Around 200 BC.  Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1971.

Williamson, Callie. (1987). “Monuments of Bronze: Roman Legal Documents on Bronze Tablets.”  Classical Antiquity 160 (1987).
Wistrand, Magnus (1992). Entertainment and Violence in Ancient Rome. The attitudes of Roman writers of the first century A.D. Studia Graeca et Latina Gothoburgensia 56.


Barrow, R.H.  Slavery in the Roman Empire. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1996.  Reprint.

Bradley, K. Slavery and Society at Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Bradley, K.  Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire. A Study in Social Control. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987

Bradley, K.R. Slavery and Rebellion in the Roman World 140 B.C. - 70 B.C. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Garnsey, Peter. Ideas of Slavery from Aristotle to Augustine, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996. 

Gates Jr., Henry Louis, ed., The Classic Slave Narratives, New York, Mentor, 1987.
Hopkins, K. Conquerors and Slaves. Sociological Studies in Roman History 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980. Reprint.

Kirschenbaum, A. Sons, Slaves and Freedmen in Roman Commerce. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, 1987.

Patterson, Orlando. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1983

Westermann, W.L. The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1957. Reprint.

Wiedemann, T. Greek & Roman Slavery. London: Routledge, 1994. Reprint.

Scheidel, Walter "Quantifying the Sources of Slaves in the Early Roman Empire" JRS 87 (1997) 156-169 -+-
Harris, William Vernon "Demography, Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves" JRS 89 (1999) 62-75 -+-
Gordon, M.L. "The Nationality of Slaves under the Early Roman Empire" JRS 14 (1924) 93-111 -+-
Saller, R.P./Shaw, B.D. "Tombstones and Roman Family Relations in the Principate: Civilians, Soldiers and Slaves" JRS 74 (1984) 124-156 -+-
More bibliography on Near Eastern Law
Required Reading
Cyrus H. Gordon, The Ancient Near East 72-84 (1964)
E.A. Speiser, "Early Law and Civilization", in Collected Writings (1971)
J.J. Finkelstein, "Law in the Ancient Near East", 5 Encyclopedia Biblica (1968), reprinted in Jewish Law and Decision-Making: A Study Through Time (Aaron M. Schreiber, ed., 1979)
J.N. Postgate, "Laws and the Law", in Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History 275-291(1992)
Theodore J. Meek, trans., "The Code of Hammurabi", in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (J. Pritchard, ed., 1955)
Jean Bottero, "The Code' of Hammurabi", in Mesopotamia, Writing, Reasoning and the Gods 156-69; 179-184 (1993)
Recommended Reading
Fadhil A. Ali, "Blowing the Horn for Official Announcement", 20 Sumer 66 (1964)
G.R. Driver and J.C. Miles, The Babylonian Laws (1952)
Veysel Donbaz, "A Middle Babylonian Legal Document Raising Problems in Kassite Chronology", 41 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 207 (1982)
B.L.Eichler, "Literary Structure in the Laws of Eshnunna", in Language, Literature and History (1987)
Robert C. Ellickson and Charles DiA Thorland, "Ancient Land Law: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel", 71 Chicago-Kent Law Review 321 (1995)
J.J. Finkelstein, "Ammisaduqa' Edict and the Babylonian Law Codes'", 15 Journal of Cuneiform Studies 91 (1961)
J.J. Finkelstein, "Some New Misharum Material and Its Implications", in Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger on His Seventy-Fifth Birthday (1965)
J.J. Finkelstein, "An Old Babylonian Herding Contract and Genesis 31:38f", 88 Journal of the American Oriental Society 30 (1968)
J.J. Finkelstein, "The Laws of Ur-Nammu", 22 Journal of Cuneiform Studies 66 (1969)
J.J. Finkelstein, "On Some Recent Studies in Cuneiform Law", 90 Journal of the American Oriental Society 243 (1970)
J.J. Finkelstein, "Sex Offenses in Sumerian Laws", 86 Journal of the American Oriental Society 355 (1966)
Tikva S. Frymer-Kensky, The Judicial Ordeal in the Ancient Near East, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1977
Albert Goetze, "Mesopotamian Laws and the Historian", 69 Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (1949)
Edwin M. Good, "Capital Punishment and its Alternatives in Ancient Near Eastern Law", 19 Stanford Law Review 947 (1967)
Cyrus Gordon, Hammurapi's Code: Quaint or Forward Looking? (1957)
Samuel Greengus, "The Old Babylonian Marriage Contract", 89 Journal of the American Oriental Society 505 (1969)
Edward L. Greenstein, " To Grasp the Hem' in Ugaratic Literature", 32 Vetus Testamentum 217 (1982)
O.R. Gurney & S.N. Kramer, "Two Fragments of Sumerian Laws", 16 Assyriological Studies 13 (1965)
Rivkah Harris, "The Case of Three Babylonian Marriage Contracts", 33 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 363 (1974)
Rivkah Harris, "On the Process of Secularization Under Hammurapi", 14 Journal of Cuneiform Studies 117 (1961)
Bernard J. Hibbitts, "'Coming to Our Senses': Communication and Legal Expression in Performance Cultures", 41 Emory Law Journal 873 (1992)
Bernard S. Jackson, "Historical Aspects of Legal Drafting in the Light of Modern Theories of Cognitive Development", 3 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 349 (1980)
Bernard S. Jackson, "Principles and Cases: The Theft Laws of Hammurabi", 7 Irish Jurist 161 (1972)
T. Jacobsen, "An Ancient Mesopotamian Trial for Homicide", in Jewish Law and Decision-Making: A Study Through Time (Aaron M. Schreiber ed., 1979)
Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor (Martha Roth ed., 1995)
Niels Peter Lemche, "Justice in Western Asia in Antiquity, or Why No Laws Were Needed!", 70 Chicago-Kent Law Review 1695 (1995)
Saul Levmore, "Rethinking Comparative Law: Variety and Uniformity in Ancient and Modern Tort Law", 61 Tulane Law Review 235 (1986)
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