St. Mary’s College of Maryland
Spring 2007      Dr. Linda Jones Hall      MWF 1:20-2:30 p.m. Kent Hall 312
Office 204 Kent Hall         Phone  240-895-4434; ext 4434
Office hours  2:40-3:30 p.m. on Mon. and Wed: other times by appointment
Email  ljhall@smcm.edu   webpage http://www.smcm.edu/users/ljhall/ljhall.html

Course Description
This course covers Byzantine history from the reign of Constantine (306-336 A.D.) and concludes with fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.  Byzantine civilization, founded on the classical heritage of Greece and Rome, evolved into a unique culture which profoundly affected the medieval world in both East and West. The pervasive role of religion, the development of an extraordinary artistic and legal tradition, and the interaction with “barbarians,” Muslims, and Crusaders will be examined from primary sources as well as recent studies.

Required texts
TEXT =   Timothy E.Gregory, A History of Byzantium, London and New York: Blackwells, 2005, ISBN 0631235132.
CHURCH = Karl Morrison, ed., The Church in the Roman Empire; University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization 3, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1986, ISBN  0226069397.
READER = Deno Geanakoplos, ed. Byzantium: Church, Society, and Civilization Seen
            through Contemporary Eyes, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986, pbk ISBN 0226284611.
PROCOPIUS = Procopius. The Secret History, translated and introduced by G.A. Williamson, Penguin. pbk ISBN 0140441697. See also
PSELLUS = Michael Psellus, Fourteen Byzantine Rulers: The Chronographia, trans. E.R.A. Sewter,  Penguin, pbk ISBN 01404411697.
ANNA = Anna Comnena, The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, translated and introduced by E.R.A. Sewter, Penguin, pbk ISBN 0140442154.
ART = Rowena Loverance, Byzantium, rev. edn. British Museum paperbacks, Harvard University Press, 2004. ISBN 0674103891.

Recommended guide to writing papers
Kate Turabian. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.  ISBN 022816273.

Course readings should be done in advance of the class meeting. Attendance and class participation are very important and will be considered in the final grade. The College permits two absences. Papers and other assignments must be turned in on the due dates; 10% of the grade for the assignment will be deducted per business day that the assignment is late, unless the student has a documented reason for lateness, such as illness, death in the family, or other major problem.

PAPERS (for 200 points) should be double-spaced, with one-inch margins, in a 12-point font. The length should be 5-7 pages each. You should quote five passages from the relevant primary source(s). You may use either footnotes or parenthetical citation.             Please consult Turabian for the correct style.

WRITTEN EXERCISES (10 x 25 points per assignment)                = 250 points
FIRST TEST       = 150 points
SECOND TEST = 150 points
FIRST PAPER                                                                                     = 200 points
SECOND PAPER                                                                                     = 200 points
ATTENDANCE AND DISCUSSION                                                =   50 points

REACTION PAPERS WORTH 25 POINTS EACH- These should be about one page long, typed double-spaced or handwritten.
1) Discuss the conflict between Christianity and paganism and try to assess why Christianity prevailed.  Base this on readings in CHURCH;  due 1/26
2) Discuss an emperor from Diocletian to Julian based on the readings; due 2/2
3) Reflect on asceticism or martyrdom based on readings in CHURCH;  due 2/7
4) Discuss Procopius’ description of Justinian and Theodora;   due 2/16
5) Discuss Byzantine relations with Persia and the Islamic states; due 2/28
6) Discuss Iconoclasm, based on the READER, #s 111 and 114;  due 3/7
7) Choose 5 rulers described by Psellus; give good and bad points of each;  due 3/30
8) Analyze Anna Comnena’s characterization of a person or group;  due 4/9
9) Describe the events of 1204, based on READER, #276 and #277;  due 4/16
10) Discuss the most interesting aspect of Byzantine culture or history we covered this semester. This can be based on any reading or work of art; due 4/25

The Writing Center, located in Library 115, offers free consultations with trained peer tutors. No matter what the subject or where you are in the writing process (understanding assignments, brainstorming ideas, or revising rough and final drafts), the tutors can help. These tutors are your peers--they do not grade or proofread your paper, but instead coach you on improving your writing. See the Writing Center's website, www.smcm.edu/writingcenter, for the latest information about tutoring hours, and also for many helpful handouts and other resources.

ACADEMIC DISHONESTY is a very serious offense which is discussed in the SMCM catalog, the student handbook, or the following link: http://www.smcm.edu/academics/academserv/advisingmanual/appendix%20c.htm
Penalties can include, but are not limited to, a zero on the work in question, an F in the course, and referral to the Office of the Provost. ALL sources (books, articles, websites) must be cited properly.  See Turabian for correct citation styles.

See the Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.) and the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (3 vols.) in the Reference area of the library. See various articles for current research.

Journals at SMCM (on the second floor of the library near the stairs at the rear of that floor) include such print journals as Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies. Current issues are on the display racks. Back issues are bound and are on the shelf by the call number which you can find either from the current issue or from the catalog.

PROJECT MUSE http://muse.jhu.edu/
JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/
ARTICLE FIRST, FIRST SEARCH. etc. http://www.smcm.edu/library/database.htm
Get books and articles from SMCM Interlibrary Loan http://www.smcm.edu/library/illpolic.htm or by paper forms at Circulation
TOCS-IN is an excellent search tool for recent bibliography of journal articles (some will print) http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/amphoras/tocfind


AMMIANUS PROJECT http://odur.let.rug.nl/~drijvers/ammianus/index.htm


PSELLUS COMPLETE CHRONOGRAPHIA = FOURTEEN BYZANTINE RULERS http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/psellus-chronographia.html





Texts about Julian the Apostate http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/gregory_nazianzen_1_preface.htm


Alice-Mary Talbot, ed., Holy Women of Byzantium: Ten Saints’ Lives in English http://www.doaks.org/ATHW.html


DIR, De Imperatoribus Romanis (this site includes Byzantine emperors)

PAUL HASSALL (See also the link to Late Antiquity) 
Paul Halsall’s online Byzantium http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/medweb/
The end of the Classical World http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1b.html

TIMOTHY E. GREGORY  http://isthmia.osu.edu/teg/
Tim Gregory’s course on Late Antiquity http://isthmia.osu.edu/teg/hist50303/

Views of Constantinople http://www.princeton.edu/~asce/const_95/const.html

Byzantine Warfare Primary Sources http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/sources/malalas.htm
Byzantine Warfare Strategy etc.

Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks http://www.doaks.org/Byzantine.html

Byzantine site in Greece http://www.myriobiblos.gr/links.htm

Byzantine site in Australia http://home.vicnet.net.au/~byzaus/

Byzantine site in the UK http://www.byzantium.ac.uk/

SAINTS Synaxarion online http://www.rongolini.com/synaxariontoc.htm

SOURCES for Saints Lives http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook3.html
Hippolyte Delehaye: The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography (1907)

Late Antique Art images http://www.flickr.com/photos/antiquite-tardive/  

The Walters Museum, Medieval collection

The Cleveland Museum of Art http://www.clemusart.com/byzantine/

Metropolitan Museum of Art Medieval Art with Late Antique & Byzantine images. http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_Of_Art/department.asp?dep=17


Elpenor, home of the Greek Word

Schedule for HIST 383.01 History of the Byzantine Empire, Spring 2007

Week 1  Introduction: the Later Roman Empire
Wed. Jan 17 TEXT, Introduction, pp. 1-20
Fri. Jan 19 TEXT, Ch 1, Crisis of the Third Century, pp. 21-32; CHURCH, 6-49

Week 2  Diocletian  and  Constantine; Christianization of the Roman Empire
Mon. Jan 22 TEXT, Ch. 2, The Revival under Diocletian, pp. 31-44;
READER, Diocletian, pp. 334, 39, 46, 57, 63-4; Persecution CHURCH 50-59
Wed. Jan 24 TEXT, Ch 3, The Age of Constantine the Great, pp. 45-65
 Fri. Jan 26 Constantine I, READER, 1-2, 17-8; 127, 132-3, 138, 145-6; 87, 202, 229, 371-2, 389; CHURCH, 77-86, 212-234; #1 due.

Week 3 Constantius and Julian - Conflicts in the West and the East
Mon Jan 29   TEXT, Ch 4, The Fourth Century: Constantius II to Theodosios I, pp. 66-82; READER, Constantius II, 127-8; ART, Ch 1, 6-19; Rome
Wed Jan 31  Julian READER, 128-9,  415-6; CHURCH, 65-70;
funeral oration by Libanius http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/libanius_monody.htm
AMMIANUS PROJECT http://odur.let.rug.nl/~drijvers/ammianus/index.htm
Ambrose and Symmachus
Fri. Feb 2  Barbarians via AMMIANUS SELECTIONS; #2 due
Barbarians, Reader 327-30;
The end of the Classical World http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1b.html
Early Germanic States http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1f.html

Week 4 Theodosius and the Fifth Century;  Dealing with the “Other”
Mon. Feb 5 TEXT, Ch 4, The Fourth Century continued, pp. 82-94; READER, Theodosius I, 57, 97, 329; 2, 129-130; Theodosius II, 109-110; The Code, 250-2; CHURCH, 70-1, 59-75, 87-92, 120, 125-154, 195-196
Wed. Feb 7 Saints and Warriors, READER 165-8, 179-181, 327-333, 393-4, 415-6; CHURCH, Ch 5, pp. 159-184, 187-212;  #3 due.
Fri. Feb 9 TEXT, Ch 5, The Fifth Century, pp. 95-111; READER Zeno, 67, 330-1; Anastasius I, 48, 253, 258, 320, 331-2; 58-9, 297; Scientists, 431-5

Week 5 Justinian and the Sixth Century; “the last Roman emperor”
Mon Feb 12 TEXT, Ch 6, The Age of Justinian, pp. 119-147;   ART Ch 2, 20-33
Wed Feb 14 PROCOPIUS, Introduction and Chs 1-3, pp. 7-113
Fri. Feb 16 PROCOPIUS, Chs 4-7, pp. 114-194; #4 due.

Week 6  Sixth and Seventh Centuries; Africa, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia
Mon Feb 19 Justinian and  Successors; READER II, see list on pp. 454-5
Wed Feb 21 FIRST PAPER DUE on some topic related to the Later Roman Empire (based on Procopius and other readings to date);
TEXT, Ch 7, Byzantine “Dark Ages”: Late Sixth to Seventh Centuries, pp. 148-182.
Fri. Feb 23 READER III [Heraclius and after]; see list on pp. 455-6; ART, Ch 3, 34-43,
Week 7 Byzantium as a Redefined Empire; the Empire of the Soul                       
Mon Feb 26 FIRST TEST over material covered to date
Wed Feb 28 TEXT, Ch 8, Isaurian Dynasty and Iconoclasm, pp. 183-201;
ART Ch 4, 44-55; #5 due.
Fri. Mar 2 READER IV [711-867; Iconoclasm] see list on page 456

Week 8 The Revived Empire; Expansion into Russia
Mon. Mar 5 TEXT, Ch 9, Continued Struggle over Ikons, pp. 202-216; READER V [867-1025; Golden Age of the Macedonians] [through 137] list on pages 456-7
Wed Mar 7 TEXT, Ch 10 The Beginnings of the Macedonian Dynasty, pp. 217-236; READER V continued [137-end] list on pp. 457-8; #6 due.
Fri. Mar 9 TEXT, Ch 11, The Apogee of Byzantine Power, pp. 237-256

            Spring break - March 10—18;  Take Psellus with you!!!

Week 9 The Literature of Byzantium
Mon. Mar 19            PSELLUS 27-83, Basil II, Constantine VIII, & Romanus III
Wed Mar 21  PSELLUS 87-164, Michael IV, Michael V and the empresses

Week 10 The Eleventh Century
Mon Mar 26  PSELLUS 165-274, Constantine IX and the empress
Wed Mar 28 PSELLUS 275-344, Michael VI, Isaac Comnenus & Constantine X
Fri. Mar 30  PSELLUS 345-380, Eudocia, Romanus IV, & Michael VII; #7 due.
Week 11  Alexios Komnenos and the First Crusade
Mon Apr 2 TEXT, Ch 12, The Komnenoi, pp. 257-281; ART, Ch 5, 56-65
Wed Apr 4 ANNA 31-134, Alexios’ rise to power                       
Fri. Apr 6 ANNA 135-215, War with the  Normans

Week 12 East and West in conflict: the Fourth Crusade and the Great Aftermath
Mon Apr 9 ANNA 293-368, Byzantine encounters with Europeans; #8 due.
Wed Apr 11 READER VI [1025-1204; decline of empire; the Comnenan and Angelid Period] (list on pages 458-460)
Fri. Apr 13 TEXT, Ch 13 The Aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, pp. 282-297; ART, Ch 6, 66-75

Week 13 The Beginnings of Decline
Mon. Apr 16 READER VII [1204-1261; Latin Empire and successor states, list p. 460]; #9 due.
Wed Apr18            READER VIIIA  [1261-1328; the Early Palaeologoi, list on pp. 460-461]
Fri Apr 20 SECOND PAPER DUE on some aspect of Byzantium  (based on Psellus and/or Anna and/or class readings since first paper);
TEXT, Ch 14, The Beginnings of Decline, pp. 298-324
Week 14 The End of the Empire and Byzantine  Influences
Mon Apr 23 TEXT, Ch 15 The End of the Empire, pp. 325-339; ART, Ch 7, 76-91
READER VIIIB [1328-1453; the Later Palaeologi] (list on pages 461-462)
Wed Apr 25 TEXT, Ch 16 Byzantium after the Fall of the City, pp. 340-357;
READER IX [Epilogue] (list on page 462); #19 due.
Fri. Apr 27 Final discussion and review for the exam

Week 15
Mon -Tues, April 30-May 1  SMP presentations;
Wed May 2 Reading Day
Thurs—Tues, May 3-8 Exams
Exam for this class is Monday May 7 at  9-11:15 a.m.  in the regular classroom;
Emphasis on material since midterm exam



See also Procopius and Eusebius, and other Byzantine authors in the Loeb library volumes in the PA section of the library.

Eusebius' Life of Constantine, Averil Cameron, trans., Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Alice-Mary Talbot, ed., Holy Women of Byzantium: Ten Saints’ Lives in English Translation, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center Studies, 1996.
Alice-Mary Talbot, ed., Byzantine Defenders of Images: Eight Saints' lives in                           English Translation, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, c1998.
 Elizabeth A.S. Dawes, ed., Three Byzantine Saints: Contemporary Biographies of St. Daniel the Stylite, St. Theodore of Sykeon, and St. John the Almsgiver, St. Vladimir’s Seminary, 1997.
Digenis Akritas: The Two-Blood Border Lord, Denison B. Hull, trans., Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1972, 1985.


Our library has a large number of books on Byzantine topics. Others can be purchased or ordered from Victor or Interlibrary Loan. Search by keyword Byzantine or Byzantium.

Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity A.D. 150-750, New York: Norton, 1989, with revised bibliography.
Peter Brown, The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity, New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Robert Browning, The Byzantine Empire, revised edition, Washington, D.C., Catholic University of America Press, 1992.
Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire, A.D. 284-430, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Averil Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity A.D. 395-600, London and New York: Routledge, 1993.
Warren Treadgold, A Concise History of Byzantium,  New York: Palgrave, 2001.
Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, 1997.
Mark Whittow, The Making of Byzantium 600-1025, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

by Timothy E. Gregory


284-305             Diocletian
                              Maximian, Galerius, Constantius I Chlorus
305-311             Galerius
                        Constantius I Chlorus
                        Severus II
                        Constantine I
                        Maximinus Daia
                        (all associated at various time. 6 augusti in 309!)
311-324             Constantine I and Licinius
324-337            Constantine I
337-340             Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans
340-361              Constantius II
361-363             Julia
363-364             Jovian
364-375             Valentian I and Valens with Valens from 367
375-378                        Valens, Gratian and Valentian II
378-395             Theodosius I the Great
378-383             with Gratian and Valentian II
383-392             with Valentian II and Arcadius
392-395             with Arcadius and Honorius

395-423             Honorius
425-455             Valentian III
455                         Petronius Maximus
455-456             Avitus
457-461             Majorian
461-465             Libius Severus
467-472             Anthimus
472                         Olybrius
473-474             Glyceruis
474-475             Julius Nepos
475-476             Romulus Augustulus

Dynasty of Theodosius
395-408            Arcadius
408-450             Theodosius II
450-457            Marcian

Dynasty of Leo
457-474             Leo I
474                         Leo II
474-491             Zeno
491-518             Anastasius

Dynasty of Justinian
518-527             Justin
527-565             Justinian I
565-578            Justin II
578-582             Tiberius II
582-602             Maurice
602-610             Phocas

Dynasty of Heraclius
610-641             Heraclius
641-668              Constans II
668-685             Constantine IV
685-695             Justinian II (exiled)
695-698             Leontius
695-698             Leontius
698-705             Tiberius III
705-711             Justinian II (restored)
(no dynasty)
711-713             Bardanes
713-716             Anastasius II
716-717             Theodosius II

Isaurian Dynasty
717-741             Leo III the Isaurian
741-775             Constantine V Copronymus
775-780             Leo IV
780-797             Constantine VI
797-802             Irene
802-811             Nicephorus I
811                         Strauracius (Stavrakios)
811-813             Michael I Rangabe (Rangavas)
813-820             Leo V

Amorian Dynasty
820-829             Michael II the Amorian
829-842            Theophilus
842-867             Michael III

Macedonian Dynasty
867-886             Basil I
886-912            Leo VI
912-13                        Alexander
912-959             Constantine VII Porphygenitus
919-944             Romanus I Lecapenus
959-963             Romanus II
963-1025             Basil II Bulgaroktonos and Constantine VIII
963                         Regency of Theophano (widow Romanus II)
963-969             Nicephorus II Phocas
969-976             John Tzimiskes
1025-1028             Constantine VIII
1028-1034             Romanus II Argyrus
1034-1041             Michael IV the Paphlagonian
1041-1042             Michael V Kalaphates
1042                         Zoe and Theodora
1042-1055             Constantine IX Monomachos
1055-1056             Theodora alone
1056-1057             Michael VI Stratiotikos

Prelude to Komnenan Dynasty
1057-1059             Isaac I Komnenos (abdicated)
1059-1067             Constantine X Doukas
1067-1071             Romanus IV Diogenes
1071-1078             Michael VII Doukas
1078-1081             Nicephorus III Botaniates

Dynasty of the Komnenoi
1081-1118             Alexios I Komnenos
1118-1143             John II Komenos
1143-1180             Manuel I Komnenos
1180-1183             Alexios II
1183-1185             Andronikos I

Dynasty of the Angeloi
1185-1195             Isaac II Angelos
[LATIN EMPIRE from 1204 to 1261]
1204-1222             Theodore I Laskaris
1222-1254             John III Doukas Vatatzes
1254-1258            Theodore II Laskaris
1258-1261             John IV Laskaris

Dynasty of the Palaeologoi
1259-1282             Michael VIII Paleologos
1282-1343             Andronikos II
1293-1320             Michael IX
[period of anarchy]
1328-1341             Andronicus III
1341-1376            John V Kantakouzenos
1341-1354             John VI
1376-1379             Andronikos IV
1379-1391             John V (restored)
1390                         John VII
1391-1425             Manuel II
1425-1448             John VIII
1449-1453             Constantine XI Dragatses