FALL 2008
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
Dr. Linda Jones Hall MWF 12:00-1:10 KH 120
Office 204 Kent Hall Phone 240-895-4434 or ext. 4434
Office hours 10:45-11:45 a.m. on Mon; 1:30-2:30 on Wed; or by appointment
Email ljhall@smcm.edu
webpage http://www.smcm.edu/ljhall/ljhall.html

Course Themes
This course focuses on understanding the cultures of the Ancient Near East, Greece, Rome, and the Late Antique Mediterranean World. These societies dealt with issues of religion and law, organization of government, military and cultural domination, and multi-ethnic integration. This course offers an opportunity to explore further these three civilizations in a comparative way and is useful to students who want a broad survey before the courses focusing on Greek, Roman and Byzantine history or the upper level seminars.

COURSE READINGS ; available at the SMCM bookstore
TEXT= Freeman, Charles, Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean, 2nd edn, Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-19-926364-6.

READINGS = Bailkey, Nels M., and Richard Lim, Readings in Ancient History, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002, ISBN 978-0-618-13383-3

HEDRICK = Hedrick, Charles W., Jr., Ancient History: Monuments and Documents, Blackwell Introductions to the Classical World, Malden, Mass., and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-4051-0658-1.

ATLAS = Haywood, John, and Simon Hall, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Civilizations, New York: Penguin, 2005, ISBN 9780141014487.

GILGAMESH = The Epic of Gilgamesh. An English Version with an Introduction by N. K. Sandars. Revised edition. Penguin, 1972. ISBN 0-14-044100-x

ODYSSEY = Homer, The Odyssey, Robert Fagles trans, Penguin Classics, 2006. ISBN 978 0 14 3039952 OR ANY TRANSLATION OF THE ODYSSEY

FINLEY = M I Finley, World of Odysseus, New York Review Books Classics Series, 2002,
ISBN-10: 1590170172.

COURSE EXPECTATIONS Regular attendance and discussion is expected, and will be considered in the calculation of your final grade for the course. Be sure to read your assignments with close attention, before class if possible.


WRITTEN EXERCISES (8 x 25 points per assignment) = 200 points
FIRST TEST = 150 points
SECOND TEST = 150 points
FIRST PAPER = 150 points
SECOND PAPER = 150 points
THIRD PAPER = 150 points
TOTAL 1000 points

GRADE SCALE Ultimately, the student’s grade is based on the professor’s assessment of the student’s work. 94-100 = A, 93-90 = A-, 87-89 = B+, 84-86 = B, 80-83 = B-, 77-79 = C+, 74-76 = C, 70-73 = C-, 67-69 = D+, 64-66 = D, 63-60 = D-, below 60 = F

Do 8 at 25 points each; approximately one page in length) = 200 points
1 Reflect on some aspect of life in the Ancient Near East, based on your reading of the Epic of Gilgamesh and/or READINGS 1-5 Due Mon Sep 8
2)Reflect on some aspect of the Egyptian world view, based on READINGS 6-11. Due Fri Sep 19
3) Discuss Assyrian Hebrew and Persian writings, based on READINGS 12-14. Due Wed Sep 24
4) Analyze some aspect of the Odyssey. Due Fri Oct 3
5) Discuss some aspect of Greek life as revealed in READINGS 19-25. Due Wed Oct 15
6) Analyze the positive and negative aspects of the Hellenistic era, based on READINGS 31-39. Due Fri Nov 7
7) Discuss the politics of the Roman Republic, based on READINGS 46-52. Due Fri Nov 11
8) Discuss some aspect of the Roman Empire based on READINGS54-57 Due Fri Nov 21

Academic dishonesty is a very serious offense.
Definition of Plagiarism from To The Point and the College Catalog:

Plagiarism is the act of appropriating and using the words, ideas, symbols, images, or other works of original expression of others as one's own without giving credit to the person who created the work. If students have any questions regarding the definition of plagiarism, they should consult their instructor for general principles regarding the use of others' work. Among sources commonly used for documenting use of others' work are the style manuals published by the American Psychological Association, the Council of Biology Editors, the Modern Language Association, and Turabian's Manual for Writers of Term Papers. The final authority concerning methods of documentation is the course instructor. Specific instances of plagiarism include, but are not limited to, the following:
a) Word-for-word copying of sentences or paragraphs from one or more sources that are the work or data of other persons (including books, articles, theses, unpublished works, working papers, seminar and conference papers, lecture notes or tapes, graphs, images, charts, data, electronically based materials, etc.), without clearly identifying their origin by appropriate referencing.
b) Closely paraphrasing ideas or information (in whatever form) without appropriate acknowledgement by reference to the original work or works.
c) Presenting material obtained from the Internet as if it were the student's own work.
d) Minor alterations such as adding, subtracting, or rearranging words, or paraphrasing sections of a source without appropriate acknowledgement of the original work or works.
3. Falsification
Falsification involves misrepresentation in an academic exercise.
Misrepresentation includes, but is not limited to:
a) Falsely attributing data or judgments to scholarly sources.
b) Falsely reporting the results of calculations or the output of computer programs, or materials from other electronic sources.
c) Presenting copied, falsified, or improperly obtained data as if it were the result of laboratory work, field trips, or other investigatory work.
4. Resubmission of work

No student may turn in work for evaluation in more than one course without the permission of the instructors of both courses.
Penalties for plagiarism can include, but are not limited to, a zero on the work in question, an F in the course, and referral to the Office of the Provost. ALL sources which you use (books, articles, internet) must be cited properly.

The Writing Center: “The Writing Center, located in the Library Annex, has peer tutors trained to discuss your writing with you. No matter where you are in the writing process (brainstorming ideas, understanding assignments, or revising rough and final drafts), the tutors in the Writing Center can assist you. These tutors are your peers-they would not grade or proofread your paper, but would instead coach you in becoming a stronger writer. I encourage you to use the Writing Center as much as possible. You can make an appointment with the Center by visiting their website, www.smcm.edu/writingcenter, and clicking "Schedule an Appointment." At the same website, you can find helpful resources on many writing-related topics.”

PAPERS should be double-spaced, with one-inch margins, in a 12-point font. The length should be 5-6 pages each. You should quote five passages from the relevant primary source(s). You may use either footnotes or parenthetical citation. A guide with examples will be distributed. In each paper, you want to explore some question that can be answered by the primary sources. Thus a paper that analyzes a narrow topic in depth is far preferable to some broad survey. In developing your argument, you should quote five passages from one or more primary source(s) which can be from our readings in class or from other ancient authors located in print volumes or from online sources. You must fully document these sources by ancient authors and titles, book and section numbers, translators, the modern title, publisher, place and date of publication, and page numbers. You may use either footnotes with a bibliography OR parenthetical citations with a list of works cited.

Online guide to Turabian style for citations

Primary sources are writings by ancient authors.
Good links for primary sources http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/byzantium
Egypt, Mesopotamia, Israel, Greece, Rome http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook.html
East Asia http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/eastasiasbook.html
India http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/india/indiasbook.html
Africa and Egypt http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/africa/africasbook.html
Jewish history http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/jewishsbook.html
Women’s History http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/women/womensbook.html
Ancient history links http://www.livius.org/home.html

Week 1 Studying the Past
Mon Sep 1 Labor Day, NO CLASS
Wed Sep 3 TEXT, Ch 1. Rediscovering the Ancient World, pp 1-18;
HEDRICH Preface, pp viii-xi
Fri Sep 5 TEXT Ch 2. The Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, 5000 - 1200 BC, pp 19-39;
READINGS I. Near Eastern Civilizations, pp 1-4
1. The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Sumerian Heroic Age, pp 4-12
2. The Epic of the Flood: The Babylonian Noah, pp 13-17
The Epic of Gilgamesh
3. The Reforms of Urukagina: "He established freedom", pp 17-20
4. The Shamash Hymn: Moral Religion and Social Justice, pp 21-24
5. The Laws of Hammurabi: "To further the welfare of the people", pp 24-32

Week 2 Mesopotamia and Egypt
Mon Sep 8 GILGAMESH-ALL; Response #1 due
Wed Sep 10 HEDRICH Ch 4. Literary Texts, pp 66-88
Fri Sep 12 HEDRICH Ch 3. Chronology, pp 48-65

Week 3 Egypt
Mon Sep 15 TEXT Ch 3. Egypt, the Gift of the Nile 3200 - 1500 BC, pp 40-62
Wed Sep 17 TEXT Ch 4. Egypt as an Imperial Power, 1500 - 1000 BC, pp 63-76;
TEXT Interlude One. The Amarna Letters, pp 77-79; HEDRICH Ch 5. Records, pp 89-107
Fri Sep 19 Response #2 due
TEXT Ch 5. Daily Life in New Kingdom Egypt, pp 80-93;
READINGS 6. The Instruction of Ptah-hotep: Early Material Values in Egypt, pp 33-36
7. Unas Pyramid Incantations: The afterlife of a Pharaoh, pp 36-44
8. Hymn to the Aton: Religious Reform and Monotheism, pp 44-48
9. An Egyptian-Hittite Treaty: Imperialism and International Diplomacy, pp 48-51
10. Sea Peoples' Inscriptions: Egypt and Its Neighbors Under Ramses III, pp 51-55
A. Ramses III Issuing Equipment to His Troops for the Campaign Against the Sea Peoples
B. Ramses III on the March to Zahi Against the Sea Peoples
C. Ramses III in Battle with the Land Forces of the Sea Peoples
11. Work Songs from Ancient Egypt: Voices of Ordinary Men and Women, pp 55-58

Week 4. The Diffusion of Near Eastern Civilization
Mon Sep 22 TEXT Ch 6. The Ancient Near East 1200 - 500 BC, pp 94-109; HEDRICH Ch 6. Public Writing, pp 108-125
Wed Sep 24 Response #3 due
READINGS 12. Prism of Sennacherib: An Assyrian King's Wars, pp 59-66
13. The Old Testament: Hebrew Views on God and on History, pp 66-99
A. Earliest Relations Between Humans and God
B. Hebrew Origins: The Patriarchs
C. Bondage and Deliverance
D. The Sinai Covenant
E. The Song of Deborah: "So perish all thine enemies, O Lord!"
F. The People Demand a King: "To govern us like all the nations"
G. The United Kingdom of Israel: "A great name, like the name of the great ones of the earth"
H. Jeremiah: Prophet of the New Covenant
14. A Conquering Messiah: Cyrus the Great and the Persian Empire, pp 99-104
A. Cyrus' Cylinder: The Chosen of Marduk
B. Cyrus as the Messiah: Return of the Jews and the Rebuilding of Jerusalem
Fri Sep 26 TEXT Ch 7. Settings for Civilization: The Mediterranean,pp 110-120;
HEDRICH Ch 2. Geography, pp 27-47

Week 5. The Early Greeks
Mon Sep 29 First paper due the Ancient Near East or Egypt
Early Greeks TEXT, Ch 8. The Early Greeks, 2000 - 700 BC,pp 121-143;
READINGS II. Greek Civilization: Ancient Greece, p 105;
15. Homer: The Greek Heroic Age, pp 107-119
Fri Oct 3 FINLEY-ALL; Response #4 due

Week 6. The Rise of Classical Greece
Mon Oct 6 TEXT Ch 9. The Greeks in a Wider World, 800 - 600 BC,pp 144-161;
Ch 10. Hoplites and Tyrants: The Emergence of the City State,pp 162-182
Wed Oct 8 TEXT Ch 11. Cultural Change in the Archaic Age,pp 183-197;
READINGS 16. Hesiod: Changing Times Bring on a Moral Order, pp 120-125
17. Early Greek Lyric Poetry: Individualism Emergent, pp 126-130
A. Sappho
B. Theognis
18. Pindar's Odes to Athletic Victors: The Heroic Ideal, pp 130-133
Fri Oct 10 midterm exam over ANE, Egypt, and Early Greece

Week 7. Classical Greece Readings 23-28
Mon Oct 13 – Tues Oct 14 READING DAYS—NO CLASSES
Wed Oct 15 Response #5 due
TEXT Ch 12. The Persian Wars, pp 198-214;
READINGS 19. Solon: Economic and Political Reforms at Athens, pp 133-139
20. Pisistratus: The Rise of Tyranny at Athens, pp 140-142
21. Lycurgus: The Spartan Military Machine, pp 143-151
22. Herodotus: Greece Saved from Persian Conquest, pp 151-165
23. Pericles' Funeral Oration: An Idealized View of Athenian Democracy and Its Empire, pp 165-170
24. The Old Oligarch: A Realistic View of Athenian Democracy and Its Empire, pp 171-175
25. Thucydides, History: The Statesman's Handbook, pp 175-193
A. The Revolt of Mitylene: "Democracy is incapable of empire."
B. The Corcyrean Revolution: The Psychology of Civil War
C. The Melian Dialogue: "The strong do what they can and the weak submit."
D. The Sicilian Expedition: "Most glorious to the victors, most calamitous to the conquered."
Fri Oct 17 TEXT Ch 13. Everyday Life in Classical Greece, pp 215-235

Week 8. Literature and Philosophy in Greece
Mon Oct 20 TEXT Ch 14. Religion and Culture in the Greek World 236-242; TEXT Interlude Two. Classical Art,pp 243-246; HEDRICH Ch 7. Coins, pp 126-143
Wed Oct 22 TEXT Ch 15. Athens: Democracy and Empire, pp 237-269
Fri Oct 24 TEXT Ch 16. From Aeschylus to Aristotle, pp 270-293;
Interlude Three. Rhetoric,pp 294-296;
READINGS 26. Xenophon: The Athenians Overthrow Dictatorship, pp 193-200

Week 9. The Culture of the Golden Age
Mon Oct 27 The philosophical, moral and legal legacy
READINGS 27 Socrates: Philosophy Shifts from Nature to Man, pp 200-215
A. The Socratic Method: "The unexamined life is not worth living", pp.202-204
B. Aristophanes, Clouds: Socrates as Troublemaker: "You will now believe in no god but those we believe in...", pp. 205-209
C. The Apology of Socrates: "I am that gadfly which God has attached to the state", 209-215
28. Lysias, The Murder of Erathosthenes: An Athenian Woman's Life: "...I began to trust her...." , pp 215-218
29. Plato: "Turning the eye of the soul toward the light", pp 218-225
A. The Theory of Ideas: The Allegory of the Cave, pp 219-223
B. The Spiritual Life: Dualism of Body and Soul, pp 223-225
30. Aristotle: "The philosophy of human affairs", pp 225-247
A. The Nicomachaean Ethics: "The good for man", pp 226-235
B. The Politics: "A state exists for the sake of the good life.", pp 235-246
Wed Oct 29 HEDRICH Ch 1. Monuments and Documents, pp 1-26
Fri Oct 31 NO CLASS

Week 10. The Hellenistic Age
Mon Nov 3 TEXT Ch 17. The Struggle for Power, 431 - 338 BC, pp 297-313
Wed Nov 5 TEXT Ch 18. Alexander of Macedon and Expansion of the Greek World, pp 314-332
Fri Nov 7 TEXT Ch 19. The Hellenistic World, pp 333-354; Response #6 due
READINGS 31. Demosthenes Versus Isocrates: "Nationalism" Versus "Internationalism", pp 247-256
A. Demosthenes: First Philippic: " Athenians when will you act as becomes you!"
B. Isocrates, Address to Philip: "A champion powerful in action"
III. Hellenistic Civilization, p 259
32. Arrian, History of Alexander the Great: Conqueror and Reformer, pp 260-269
33. Demetrius: A God Among Men, pp 269-274
A. Plutarch, Life of Demetrius
B. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet: Ithyphallic Hymn in Honor of Demetrius
34. King and City: Antigonus the One-Eyed and Scepsis, pp 275-277
A. Letter of Antigonus to Scepsis
B. Scepsis' Response to Antigonus's Letter
35. Euhemerus of Messsene, Sacred History: How Men Became Gods, pp 278-280
36. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet: Hellenistic Pomp and Circumstance, pp 280-287
37. Oil Monopoly of Ptolemy II Philadelphus: Toward a Command Economy, pp 287-289
38. Plutarch, The Life of Antony: The Portrait of Queen Cleopatra, pp 289-292
39. Hellenistic Philosophy: The Cynic Counterculture, pp 292-296
40. Hellenistic Science: Archimedes, pp 296-299

Week 11. The Rise of Rome; Second paper due on Greece

Mon Nov 10 TEXT Interlude Four. Celts and Parthians, pp 355-360;
Ch 20. The Etruscans and Early Rome,pp 361-382;
READINGS IV. The Roman Republic, pp 303-304
41. Livy: The Early Romans, pp 304-313
A. Preface: "The greatest nation in the world"
B. The Rape of Lucretia: Monarchy Abolished
C. Horatius at the Bridge: "A noble piece of work"
Wed Nov 12 TEXT Ch 21. Rome becomes a Mediterranean Power, pp 383-401,
HEDRICH Ch 8. Material Culture, pp 144-165;
READINGS 42. Livy: The Foreign Policy of the Roman Republic, pp 314-319
43. Polybius: The Constitution of the Roman Republic, pp 319-324
44. Cato the Elder: Traditional Standards in a New Age, pp 325-330
45. Pseudo-Cicero: How to Get Elected to Public Office in Rome, pp 330-334
Fri Nov 14 Response # 7 due
TEXT Ch 22. From the Gracchi to Caesar, 133 - 55 BC, pp 402-424, Interlude Five. Voices from the Republic, pp 422-428;
READINGS 46. Tiberius Gracchus: The Republic at the Crossroads, pp 334-342
47. Gaius Gracchus: The Republic at the Crossroads, Continued, pp 342-348
48. The Revolt of Spartacus: The Dangers of a Slave Society, pp 349-353
49. The Conspiracy of Catiline: The Roman Republic in Decay, pp 353-360
50. Julius Caesar: The Man and the Statesman, pp 360-370
51. The Assassination of Julius Caesar: "Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead!" , pp 370-375
52. Cicero: "An eloquent man who loved his country well", pp 375-385
A. Advocate of Property Rights, Greek Philosophy, and the Status Quo
B. Champion of Liberty: The Second Philippic

Week 12. The Principate
Mon Nov 17 TEXT Ch 23. The Fall of the Roman Republic, 55 - 31 BC, pp 429-444; Interlude Five. Women in the Roman Republic, pp 445-449

Wed Nov 19 TEXT Ch 24. Augustus and the Founding of Empire, pp 450-464;
READINGS 53. Lucretius: Epicurean Philosophy at Rome, pp 386-394
V. The Roman Empire, pp 397-413
54. Augustus: The Achievements of the Deified Augustus, pp 397-403
55. Augustus' Reconstruction of the Roman World: Contrasting Estimates, pp 403-413
A. Dio Cassius: The "True Democracy" of the Roman Empire
B. Tacitus, Annals: "It was really from a lust for power."
Fri Nov 21 The Empire Response #8 due
TEXT Ch 25. Consolidating the Empire, AD 14 - 138, pp 465-494; TEXT Ch 26. Administering and Defending the Empire, pp 495-516; Interlude Six. The Romans as Builders, pp 517-523;
READINGS 56. The Pax Romana: Divergent Views, pp 413-423
A. Tacitus, Histories: "By the prosperity and order of eight hundred years has this fabric of empire been consolidated...."
B. Tacitus, Agricola: "They create a desert and call it peace."
C. Aelius Aristides, Oration on Rome: "How is this form of government not beyond every democracy?"
READINGS 57. Rebels Against Rome, pp 423-435
A. Tacitus, Annals: The Rebellion of Boudicca in Britain
B. Josephus, History of the Jewish War: The Futility of Revolt

Week 13. The Spiritual Metamorphosis
Mon Nov 24 TEXT Ch 27. Social and Economic Life in the Empire, pp 524-540

Week 14. The Dominate
Mon Dec 1 TEXT Ch 28. Transformations: The Roman Empire, 138 - 313, pp 541-563;
READINGS 58. Aspects of Roman Slavery, pp 436-445
A. Varro, On Agriculture: Setting Up a Slave Plantation
B. Columella, On Agriculture: Masters and Slaves
C. Seneca, Moral Epistle: "...see in him a freeborn man..."
59. Capitalism in the Early Empire: From Free Enterprise to State Intervention, pp 445-457
A. Petronius: A Self-Made Millionaire
B. Emergency Measures to Deal with Depression
60. The Legal Status of Roman Women, pp 458-464
61. Juvenal: The Emancipated Women of the Early Empire, pp 465-467
62. Tacitus: The Early Germans, pp 467-473
Wed Dec 3 TEXT Ch 29. The Foundations of Christianity, pp 564-581;
READINGS 63. Marcus Aurelius: "Either atoms or Providence", pp 473-477
64. Apuleius: The Cult of Isis and Religious Syncretism, pp 477-481
VI. Early Christianity and Late Antiquity, pp 483-485
65. The New Testament: The Beginnings of Christianity, pp 485-506
A. The Teachings of Jesus: "Turn away from your sins! The Kingdom of heaven is near!"
B. The Work of Paul: "Jews and Gentiles...are all one in union with Christ Jesus"
READINGS 66. Christianity and Greco-Roman Thought: "Whatever has been uttered aright by any men in any place belongs to us Christians", pp 506-520
A. Justin Martyr, Apology: "Those who lived according to reason are Christians."
B. Tertullian, Against Heretics: "What is there in common between Athens and Jerusalem?"
C. St. Augustine, Confessions: "How did I burn to fly from earthly things to You."
67. The Persecution of Christians: "Amid the ruins of a falling age, our spirit remains erect." , pp 521-541
A. Pliny, Letters: Trajan's Enlightened Policy
B. Tertullian, Apology: The Christian View of the Persecutions
C. The Martyrdom of Polycarp of Smyrna: Early Persecutions Against Christians
D. The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Feliticas: North African Christian Martyrs
Fri Dec 5 TEXT Ch 30. The Empire in the Fourth Century, pp 582-607;
READINGS 68. The Reforms of Diocletian: "...by whose virtue and foreseeing care all is being reshaped for the better." , pp 542-549
A. Administrative Reorganization: "This man...overturned the Roman Empire."
B. Edict of Prices: The Controlled Economy of the Late Roman Empire
C. Diocletian's Edict of Persecutions Against Christians: "There are profane persons here...."
69. Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of the Emperor Constantine, pp 549-556
70. The Theodosian Code: Towards a Christian Roman Empire, pp 556-564
71. Augustine, City of God: The Unimportance of the Earthly City, pp 564-571
72. Salvian of Marseille, On the Governance of God: "Where or in whom are evils so great, except among the Romans?" , pp 541-576

Week 15. The Waning of the Western Empire TEXT
Mon Dec 8 Third paper on Rome due
TEXT Ch 31. The Creation of a New Europe, 395 - 600, pp 608-627
Wed Dec 10 TEXT Ch 32. The Emergence of the Byzantine Empire, pp 628-649
Fri Dec 12 Final class; Review for exam
Week 16: Final Exam
Mon Dec 15 at 2:00-4:15, regular classroom